Oleh: Luthfi Makhasin (Dosen UNSOED, anggota Forum Lafadl)

Dalam novel Bekisar Merah, Tohari menggambarkan nasib malang yang dialami Rasus, seorang petani gula kelapa, menghadapi ulah para tengkulak. Mempertaruhkan maut menyadap nira dan bersimbah keringat mengolah nira menjadi gula, akhirnya toh dia hanya bisa pasrah menerima harga rendah yang ditawarkan seorang tengkulak di desanya, Pak Tirta. Tokoh Rasus dalam novel itu barangkali mewakili potret buram nasib 30-ribuan petani gula kelapa yang tersebar di sentra kerajinan gula kelapa Banyumas seperti Purwojati, Jatilawang, Wangon, Ajibarang, dan Cilongok.

Di kampungku, ujung utara ibukota kecamatan Cilongok, gula kelapa menjadi tumpuan hidup ratusan keluarga, terutama mereka yang tidak memiliki sawah. Sebagian besar dari mereka hanyalah buruh penderes, sebutan penyadap nira dan petani gula kelapa di Banyumas. Mereka menyadap nira dari pohon kelapa yang dimiliki tetangganya yang lebih kaya dengan imbalan beberapa kilo gula setiap hari pasaran. Sistem setoran gula seperti sewa ini disebut dengan mendreng.

Biasanya penderes menyetor setiap 35 hari sekali pada hari pasaran pon atau legi. Jumlah gula yang disetor tergantung kesepakatan, antara penderes dan pemilik pohon kelapa. Untuk setiap pohon yang dia sadap niranya, seorang penderes menyetor antara setengah sampai dua setengah kilo gula. Tapi itu tidak mutlak, karena tergantung kesuburan dan banyaknya nira yang bisa diambil.


Tidak ada yang tahu pasti mulai kapan aktivitas ekonomi ini berkembang. Konon, ketrampilan membuat gula kelapa ini sudah dikenal turun-temurun sejak masa Majapahit. Di kampungku ada juga cerita orang tua yang mengaitkan gula kelapa dengan Islam, karena pembuatan gula kelapa yang dipelopori para penyebar Islam mencegah pembuatan tuak dari nira seperti yang konon katanya lazim dilakukan pada masa lalu. Entahlah, tapi menurutku cerita yang mengaitkan gula dengan Islam ini terlalu mengada-ada. Baca entri selengkapnya »

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Oleh: Amin Mudzakkir (Anggota Forum Lafadl, peneliti LIPI)

Introduction
This Chapter aims to trace the historical roots of the foreign enterprise presence in the Philippines. Initially their presence cannot be separated from the history of colonization in the country. This occurred a long time ago in a process negotiated by varied powers and involved domination and resistance. To some extent, foreign enterprises historically have expanded into trans national corporations (TNCs); structurally connected with the transformation of the global market. ‘The TNCs’, however, are possibly different from ‘the enterprises’. Nevertheless, the origin of the TNC phenomena in the contemporary era can be traced through the history of European enterprises which in the past were placed in the structure of the colonial political economy. In subsequent periods of Philippines history, US enterprises replaced the Spanish enterprises. This replacement only changed the agent; while its structure continued to exist. This paper will only show the issues pertaining to the economic history of the Philippines, especially in the colonial period.
In the first part of this Chapter, following the example of Scott (1998), I will discuss ‘legibility’ and ‘simplification’ used by the colonial state to control nature and society, especially during the early colonization history. It was a kind of politics of state hegemony, in Gramscian terms, which accelerated the Spanish and then the American capitalist power to penetrate the structure of the Filipino political economy. Furthermore, it was done, for example, by collecting all the scattered barangay (community) in a resettlement and catalogued the Filipinos by the gift of personal identity papers. In other parts, the Church was used by the State to reorganize native society. The barangay were resettled into pueblos and parishes. The relations between the Church and the State in the Philippines, is noted as the most successful in the Christianized history in Asia. At other times, however, the Church has had a significant role as an impetus of popular unrest among the Filipinos.


This Chapter is addressed also to briefly explain ethnicity and class relations in the issues of the economy and what it means in the debate of political discourse. The European enterprises, however, were developed through collaboration with local partners. In the Philippines, besides the native landlords, the Chinese and Mestizos were the middle class that benefited from the colonial presence. They have economic capacity to respond to the transformation, enter higher education institutions and talk and style themselves like their Spanish counterparts. They were often called the Ilustrados class. They consisted essentially of the educated children of landlords, bureaucratic and merchant families who adopted the ideology of the liberal bourgeoisie (Sison and de Lima 1998: 70). Baca entri selengkapnya »

Selamat Tahun Baru Hijriyah

Senin, 22 Januari 2007

Semoga di tahun ini tak ada lagi orang yang kekurangan dan kelebihan harta…

Menikah

Rabu, 17 Januari 2007


Ratna Mustika Sari—anggota Forum Lafadl, staf pada Ombudsman DIY—disunting Erwin Endaryanto, rekan satu angkatannya semasa kuliah di Jurusan Ilmu Pemerintahan FSIPOL UGM. Resepsi pernikahan mereka dilangsungkan 7 Januari 2007 lalu di Ciamis Jawa Barat.
Lafadl mengucapkan selamat mengarungi kehidupan rumah tangga, semoga keluarga yang dibangun mendatangkan berkah bagi kehidupan…

Peradaban di Tubir Jurang

Minggu, 7 Januari 2007

Oleh: Bosman Batubara (Geologist, anggota Forum Lafadl)

“Science has eliminated distance,” kata Melquiades, “In a short time, man will be able to see what is happening in any place in the world without leaving his own house,” lanjutnya. Benar kiranya apa yang dikatakan oleh sang Gypsi Melquiades tersebut: bahwa sains telah mengeliminasi jarak. Dan kita tahu bahwa jarak sendiri adalah muasal dari ruang.
Dewasa ini kita hidup dengan hadirnya entitas ruang yang baru. Dikatakan baru, karena ruang yang hadir tersebut telah melibas semua prasyarat-prasyarat ruang konvensional. Ia hadir dalam bentuk maya. Tanpa koordinat X, Y, dan elevasi. Sebuah ruang—dan juga waktu—yang termampatkan. Dengan presisi yang sangat akurat Teori Kenisbian Einstein telah mengejahwantah di antara kita. Bahwa ruang—dan juga waktu—adalah entitas yang  nisbi, dan dapat membentuk koontium baru dalam satuan ruang-waktu. Dengan demikian ia menjadi godam bagi konsep sebelumnya yang dipaparkan oleh Newton bahwa ruang dan waktu adalah entitas yang anta.

Peristiwa beberapa hari yang lalu membuat saya mau tak mau mengingat kembali semua hal di atas. Ketika dalam suatu bangun pagi yang agak kesiangan, saya dikejutkan oleh kedatangan seorang teman yang tampak sangat terpukul, wajahnya kelihatan sangat lelah dan lebih tua dari biasanya: “e-mail tak dapat dibuka. Ada gempa di Taiwan, internet rusak,” demikian penjelasannya. Dalam perbincangan berikutnya yang lebih tenang, dan setelah membaca Koran, saya dapat mulai mengerti peta persoalannya. Bahwa gempa bumi berkekuatan 7.2 pada skala Richter di Taiwan telah menyebabkan putusnya beberapa serat optika bawah laut yang merupakan nadi komunikasi yang menghubungkan China, Jepang, Korea Selatan, negara-negara Asia Tenggara, dan Amerika Serikat, (KOMPAS, 29/12/06, hlm. 9). Baca entri selengkapnya »

From the Prisoners’ Eyes

Jumat, 5 Januari 2007

Oleh: Uzair Fauzan (Koordinator Lafadl)


“We used to meet at the House, now we meet at rutan.” It was the first statement from Mr Syukron (falsified name) right after we, myself and a researcher from Australia, arrived at the meeting hall of the rutan, an abbreviation from rumah tahanan which literally means house of prisoners. At right here, Mr Syukron, a former head of local house of representatives, has been staying for almost 80 days. He is accompanied by Mr Soleh (also falsified name), his former deputy. Both are being in trial process for the charge of corruption. The court instructed their imprisonment on the ground that they would repeat the crime, they would discard the evidence, or they would runaway, reasons that for them are hardly understandable.

This morning, we decided to visit the convicted because the rutan is only within walking distance. It is located near the square (commonly known as alun-alun), the regent’s office, and the great (regency) mosque, typically Javanese spatial configuration which for some reflects colonial impression. For my colleague personally, he would like to see Pak Syukron because, while he was still a leading public official, Pak Syukron was willing to be interviewed for his research for several times. Before entering rutan, we registered our names at the section of visitor registration which is located at the far corner of the rutan. As first time visitors, we needed to open wide our eyes to find the place. At this section, we were already welcomed with a request-cum demand from a female receptionist to leave a pack cigarette for the guards. It is only because he is a white man whom probably she never met at this prison, she finally forgave us. “Wis ora opo-opo (It is ok [if he doesn’t bring any cigarettes]). Dheweke durung mudeng (he still doesn’t know (“the rule”),” she said. Before we finally met Pak Syukron and Pak Soleh, we must went through guards’ desk, around nine meter square with iron gates connecting both outer life and inner life of the prison, where we found several packs of cigarettes from previous visitors.

It was just like a visit to a nearly dead man. Full of sadness, especially in the beginning. Words were almost unspoken. With gloomy face, Syukron who wore prisoner uniform number 171 opened our conversation about his unlucky nasib (=destiny). He repeatedly said several other statements which in essence reflect his regret about his current life episode. It was a big shock for him; formerly very active and mobile, now he is very passive and his activities are very limited. A bit different from Syukron, Soleh was still showing his optimism in struggling against the trial by telling about mistakes in the charges. But, both agreed that their case is very political. They questioned several decisions of the court, among of them is the exclusive charge on both of them, releasing from charges other political actors who agreed (either directly or indirectly) to the decision to allocate funds for personal welfare of the house members. The political weight of the case is very striking, especially approaching the district head election (commonly known as pilkada). Due to highly political character of the case he conceived, Soleh said that he needed to be careful in eating meals in prison. So far, he says that he prefers to have meals carried by his own family than meals from the prison. Some says that their trial are potentially dragging some other public officials into prison, especially those who are currently running for regent’s office. Baca entri selengkapnya »

Di Balik Teori Landas Kontinen

Selasa, 2 Januari 2007

Oleh: Bosman Batubara (Geologist, Anggota Forum Lafadl)


Tapal Diskursi
Dalam sebuah makalah yang provokatif tentang pengembangan Sumber Daya Alam (SDA) pada Jurnal Prisma di tahun 70-an, geologiwan ITB, Prof. J. A. Katili, memetakan kebutuhan Indonesia dalam mengelola SDA. Dalam eksplorasinya Prof. Katili berpendapat bahwa salah satu aspek penting yang harus dibenahi adalah perihal minimnya pengacara yang memahami sistem pengelolaan SDA. Akibatnya sering terjadi penandatanganan kontrak yang merugikan Indonesia.


Keuntungan pihak asing misalnya meliputi masa bebas pajak (tax holiday) untuk jangka waktu tertentu, tidak disyaratkannya repatriasi ke Indonesia atas hasil ekspor, cadangan bijih atau hidrokarbon yang ternyata lebih besar dari yang diduga, dan pemahaman terhadap pasal-pasal kontrak yang kurang baik (J.A. Katili, 1975). Dengan pelbagai kelemahan itu, tak pelak Indonesia, dengan sekian daftar kekayaan alamnya, hanya menjadi ’mainan’ negara-negara maju dan korporasi multinasional/transnasional.
Pada tempo belum lama ini terjadi sengketa perbatasan di wilayah kepulauan Sipadan dan Ligitan, sejarah mencatat bahwa kedua pulau jatuh ke dalam dekapan negara tetangga Indonesia, Malaysia. Atau perkara lain: sengketa Blok Ambalat yang menyangkut sesumber hidrokarbon di lepas pantai dan negosiasi Blok Cepu yang amat panjang dan berliku. Terlepas dari siapa yang benar dan/atau salah, yang jelas, dalam perkara-perkara itu dibutuhkan pengacara handal yang memahami lekuk-liku pengelolaan SDA.

Hal ini semakin meneguhkan pentingnya pemetaan masalah yang telah dilakukan oleh Prof. kita di atas. Tulisan ini, karenanya, hendak meneruskan tarian pena Prof. Katili: membahas Hukum Laut Internasional tentang Teori Landas Kontinen (TLK) yang telah lama dipakai sebagai salah satu konsep untuk menentukan batas suatu negara di laut. Baca entri selengkapnya »